On this page:
6.1 Intro
6.2 Why Glow?
6.2.1 DApps:   The Very Hardest Programs To Write!
6.2.1.1 Zero tolerance to bug
6.2.1.2 All code is fragile
6.2.1.3 Active Adversaries
6.2.1.4 All code is public
6.2.1.5 Usual reasoning techniques are lacking
6.2.2 DApps:   Creating Trust Between Participants
6.2.3 DApps:   What it is not
6.2.4 DApps:   A Narrow Domain Fit for a DSL
6.3 How Glow?
6.3.1 Building Trust
6.3.2 Syntax:   No Surprises
6.3.2.1 Function Definition Syntax
6.3.2.2 Integer Literals
6.3.2.3 Scoping
6.4 What Glow?
6.5 When Glow?
8.0

6 Glow Explanation

6.1 Intro

To quote the abstract of the Glow Whitepaper:

We present Glow, a Domain-Specific Language (DSL) to develop secure Decentralized Applications (DApps) on the blockchain. Unlike existing languages, Glow covers much more than a DApp’s “smart contract”: the Glow compiler also generates crucially matching client code, and a logical model of your DApp so you can prove it correct. Formal methods are not an afterthought in Glow, they are built into the language and its implementation. Furthermore, Glow’s logic is designed to deal with the inherently adversarial aspect of DApps, that existing formal tools blatantly overlook. Underlying Glow is an architecture that in the future will make it possible to prove correctness of Glow itself, and can later grow into a complete DApp Operating System. Mutual Knowledge Systems, Inc. is developing Glow as an Open Source platform, with an ambitious Business Model to become the go-to company for all blockchain developments.

We refer you to the aforementioned Whitepaper for much details on the technology behind Glow. Indeed, if you are looking for the concepts that underlie Glow, like interactions, participants, the co-generation of contracts and client/server code, verification using Game Semantics, etc., then the technical parts of the Glow Whitepaper are the source of information.

This document aims to give the somewhat technical reader a good enough grasp of the principles we follow as we design Glow as a language, so they can decide what to use it for, when, and how:

6.2 Why Glow?

This section presents the goals and purpose of Glow. Why did the world need Yet Another Programming Language? Because so far there were no adequate tools for the important purpose of building secure DApps.

6.2.1 DApps: The Very Hardest Programs To Write!

It is harder to write a secure Decentralized Application (or DApp, or dApp) than any other piece of software. Here are the reasons why.

6.2.1.1 Zero tolerance to bug

For most software, a bug is just an issue you file, that may or may not be fixed at the next release. Even for serious bugs, it considered alright to issue a fix after the fact in a matter of days, and to stop using the software in the meantime if the bug is really serious. By contrast, the "bug budget" for blockchain-facing parts of a DApp is zero: DApps make high-stake irreversible transactions on public blockchains, such that if a bug is found, users stand to lose all their assets at stake, possibly millions of dollars, with no recourse whatsoever. Any bug fix will come too late for these users. Thus, in the famous second hack for the Parity Wallet, one single bug was found in this relatively short contract of only 400 lines, written by the greatest specialists, and users forever lost 280 M$ worth of tokens.

6.2.1.2 All code is fragile

Most software is written by developers used to writing bugs, with tools designed to let bugs be written and be handled later. Indeed, because they can afford to ship bugs, but they can’t afford to ship late, most developers are used to writing software that has bugs in them; most programming languages, software development tools, programming methodologies don’t even try to write software that is bug-free; they are not designed for that, not optimized for that. This makes these languages, tools, methodologies—and developers—completely inappropriate to write software that is fit to run on blockchains. For that, you need software that is correct-by-construction, with programmers who think like mathematicians, languages, tools and methodologies that are designed around the purpose of writing correct software. There are a few outliers, notably in the aerospace or biomedical industries, who do care about correct software; but even they don’t have it as hard as DApp developers.

6.2.1.3 Active Adversaries

Most software only has to survive naturally occurring accidents. If corner case is only triggered by the simultaneous occurrence of a hundred adverse conditions, then it doesn’t need be handled correctly, because the event is astronomically unlikely. Their "adversary" is Nature, passive. But such is not the case for DApps. The Internet is hostile, populated with black hat hackers, crackers, spies, thieves and mobsters, who are eager to steal any available assets, and disrupt any process they can hold to ransom; and these bad guys will contrive "attacks" that will ensure all required adverse conditions occur simultaneously any time that DApp developers leave any remote corner case unhandled. Any bug in a DApp is automatically a bounty to the bad guys in direct proportion to how large are the assets controlled by that DApp. A million dollar DApp automatically has a million dollar bounty on it for bad buys to break it. The "adversary" is all the bad guys in the world, active.

6.2.1.4 All code is public

Military computer systems also feature high stakes and active adversaries. But their code is top secret, guarded by armed men. They can and do use social means to protect they software, and their secrets are not freely accessible on the Internet (or so you hope). By contrast, in a DApp, no secret is possible: all parties have to see and audit the code to trust it; you must share the entirety of your code with the party most interested in breaking it and most capable of it: the other side of your transactions. Any third party who is connected to the Internet can see all the code and all the data that is published on the blockchain; and if there is any vulnerability in your DApp, it will be impossible to hide.

6.2.1.5 Usual reasoning techniques are lacking

In most programs, you can safely assume that all the parts of a program are cooperating to achieve the desired result. Bugs are not just unintentional, but counter-intentional. These are assumptions so deeply ingrained that usual reasoning tools with which advanced programmers prove their programs correct cannot even express the concept of parts of the program working against each other, of there being divergent goals for multiple actors, that are not necessarily aligned. Not just the tools, but the theories on which they are based, are wholly inadequate to even discuss whether or not a DApp is correct—they cannot even express the concepts necessary to describe correctness, much less prove anything about them. To reason about the correctness of DApps, you need specific extensions to the usual techniques, that may have already been invented, but that no one so far have ever used together.

For all these reasons, we argue that indeed writing a secure DApp is a much harder and much more expensive endeavor than writing any other software of similar size. This also means that for a given budget, you can only write DApps of much smaller size and keep your users’ assets secure. Therefore, a tool that drastically reduces the size of a DApp required to achieve some given features can unlock a universe of DApps currently impossible to achieve.

6.2.2 DApps: Creating Trust Between Participants

Before we go further, we need to characterize what is a DApp.

A DApp is an interaction between multiple untrusting participants, exchanging assets on public ledgers, subject to algorithmically verifiable rules.

Note that the DApp involves much more than merely the "smart contract": it involves all the code that runs on each of the participants’ computers. And the DApp does not create trust out of nothing: it creates trust between participants out of a common trust by all participants in the blockchain validation network and in the software that runs the DApps. Therefore, the code of the blockchain and the code of the DApps must have been suitably audited by people the participants trust, and the validation network must be properly capitalized, while the participants are suitably collateralized.

6.2.3 DApps: What it is not

If an application doesn’t involve a multiple participants interacting to exchange assets, it is not a DApp. If the same application could be rebuilt and deployed unchanged on a private cloud, without a change for the users, then it isn’t a DApp.

There are many projects for decentralized platforms on which to run distributed applications. The serious ones among these projects are themselves DApps, and great ones. But that does not automatically make applications running on top of them DApps, anymore than running on top of the Linux kernel turns an application itself into the Linux kernel.

Most programs are not DApps, according to our narrow definition. And that’s good news: that means you can keep using your regular developers, programming languages, tools and methodologies to build and maintain most programs, and enjoy the economies of scale of using mainstream ecosystems.

But some programs are DApps. And for these programs, you need to use adequate developers, languages, tools and methodologies, that are unlike any of the usual ones. For these programs, you need Glow.

6.2.4 DApps: A Narrow Domain Fit for a DSL

Another good news: because we have narrowly defined the domain DApps, we can create tools that are specialized in this domain, can cover it completely, and make it tractable. The first such tool is a Domain Specific Language, or DSL. And Glow is the one we created.

A Domain Specific Language is programming language designed to express exactly the programs that handle the problems in the given domain. Developers can express the concepts that matter to the users with enough precision to describe their solutions, yet without all the ancillary details that do not matter. Therefore programs can be as simple as possible yet cover all the domain.

Meanwhile, the evaluator for the DSL (an interpreter or a compiler, often a mix of the two) will take care of those details, automatically deriving solutions to the usual subproblems of the domain from a combination of the high-level specification from the programmer and the expertise put in the evaluator by its authors. Those details would be many costly months of work for regular developers using general purpose languages, for which you’d get as many opportunities to introduce fatal bugs; instead they become a few minutes of automated processing here and there, where no bug is ever possible anymore.

The solution to building and maintaining large applications is often to first identify the application’s domain and build and maintain a DSL for it. In the case of DApps, this strategy is not just a good idea, it is imperative, to affordably and feasibly achieve the requirement of zero bugs.

6.3 How Glow?

This section presents the constraints and hypotheses under which we designed Glow. What guides the choices we make as we build and grow this language? We strive toward clarity to make Glow programs easy not just to write, but most importantly, to audit. Programs should be concise and simple, yet without introducing imprecision, ambiguity or confusion.

6.3.1 Building Trust

The goal of Glow is to enable the development of programs that all participants in a DApp can trust. And they can trust it only if they or people they trust have audited the programs and found them to be trustworthy. But what if their trust is misplaced? Is it possible for a program to mean something else than what the auditors thought it meant? Can you trust the trust that a program inspires?

A big goal in designing the syntax and semantics of Glow is to make it easy to assess that a correct program is indeed correct, to make it very hard to misunderstand an incorrect program as being correct. The first part means that it should be as simple as possible to express solutions. But the second parts also means that it should be hard to write underhanded code. We strive to live by the principle that fishy code should smell fishy.

If there is a familiar way to express things in JavaScript and similar languages, and the according syntax is non-ambiguous, and has no pitfalls, then Glow shall use this syntax, too, to mean the very same thing. Conversely, if some statement in Glow looks like it means some thing to practitioners of JavaScript and other such languages, then indeed, that statement in Glow must mean exactly that. In other words, if some Glow code looks like valid code in one of those familiar languages, then it should be behave the exact same way in Glow as in that language. There may be exceptions to this principle (indeed, already are), but it should be totally obvious when the behavior differs between the Glow and a familiar language, how it differs, and why it differs (e.g. see Integer Literals below).

It is OK if it you need a little bit of learning to understand what a Glow program did. It is not OK if before or after that little bit of learning, and based on your familiarity with JavaScript or other languages, you are easily confused about what the program does, or make incorrect assumptions about it.

A DApp language is used to express agreements upon which valuable assets are staked. That is why the ultimate goal of DApp language is clarity as to what the code does.

6.3.2 Syntax: No Surprises

The syntax of Glow was designed to minimize surprise.

We expect that few people will write new Glow programs, and even fewer people will write them from scratch. On the other hand we expect that a lot of people will read Glow programs, and spend time trying to figure out what they do and to assess that they do not do anything wrong.

We assume further that these people will be somewhat fluent in at least one of JavaScript, TypeScript, ReasonML, OCaml, Haskell, PureScript, and passably familiar with some others in the list. Indeed, we assume that while writing or auditing a DApp, people will switch a lot between parts written in Glow for the blockchain-facing aspects of the DApp, and parts written in one of these other languages for the non-blockchain-facing aspects.

Here are a few telling examples of syntactic choices we made, to illustrate how we interpret this principle of "no surprise".

6.3.2.1 Function Definition Syntax

Our function definition syntax is the same as in ReasonML, and almost the same as in JavaScript, modulo the fact that we allow type declarations: let f = (x) => x + y;.

There is another function definition syntax in JavaScript that we purposefully do not use, probably for the same reason as ReasonML: function f (x) { return x + y ;}

Indeed in JavaScript the former syntax returns the value of the last expression, whereas the latter returns a unit value when you fall through, and you have to explicitly use a return statement to override that.

If we used this syntax and changed the semantics so we return the value of the last expression, we would create great yet subtle confusion when "code-switching" between two languages, i.e. reading in one language then the other, or adapting code from one language to the other. This would cause many hours of wasted time, or much worse, bugs that get unnoticed into production.

We could accept the same syntax and semantics, but somehow reject the code unless we can prove that the "fall through" case never happens. But that would require additional sophistication in our code to correctly analyze this behavior, and our analysis might be either too primitive and a pain to the user, or too elaborate and surprising to the user. We could try to introduce this syntax and accompanying analysis later, but it’s a lot of effort for little gain, therefore not a priority when we already have a cheap compatible syntax. Therefore, until further notice, we wholly reject this style of function definition syntax.

6.3.2.2 Integer Literals

For the longest time, JavaScript didn’t have an "integer" type of its own. Instead, all numbers are IEEE 754 double-precision floating point numbers, 64-bit total with a 53 bits of mantissa. Historically, people have been using those numbers to represent all contiguously integers from -2**53 to +2**53 though bitwise operations like & only preserve 32 bits of data. But recent versions of JavaScript have introduced a new type of integer BigInt; for backward compatibility reasons (i.e. for existing code to still work), BigInt is a disjoint type, and its literals have a n suffix to distinguish them, so that 12345678901234567890 will be a floating point number, approximating away the low digits, whereas 12345678901234567890n will be an integer, preserving them.

In Glow, we only have non-negative integers from 0 up to 2**256-1 and no floating point, because blockchains casually operate on numbers up to 256-bit wide. In the future we will have BigInt-style integers, as described in Near-Future Plans. Like in ReasonML and unlike in JavaScript, our integer literals do not have this n suffix, and it is very clear what we are doing. Furthermore, our bitwise operations are tripled, so &&& for bitwise-and, ||| for bitwise-or, ^^^ for bitwise-xor, and ~~~ for bitwise-not, so it is both very obvious to the reader what they do, yet obvious that something must be changed when copying and pasting between Glow and JavaScript, where these operations only use 32 bits.

Thus, we did choose to introduce a discrepancy between Glow and JavaScript in the semantics of a same syntactic expression and the syntax of a same semantic operation, but this discrepancy in the end makes things clearer, with no possible ambiguity to the auditor, and obvious translation between languages.

6.3.2.3 Scoping

In Glow, the participant locality annotations such a @Buyer do not affect scoping rules. A program stripped of its annotations is still a valid program that has the same effects, though a less useful program with no actual exchange of assets. The scoping rules are thus the same as in JavaScript or ReScript.

Our design makes it much easier to reason about Glow programs than about programs in another language where the syntax of JavaScript would have been preserved, but the scoping rules would have been subtly modified. That other language could cause major confusion when switching between languages, and auditors might easily misunderstand what a program does, opening opportunities for malicious underhanded code.

6.4 What Glow?

6.5 When Glow?